lukrez de rerum natura
This manuscript was likely copied after O, sometime in the mid-ninth century.  The historian Ada Palmer has labelled six ideas in Lucretius's thought (viz. But to lay down which of them it is lies beyond the range of our stumbling progress.  This is because De rerum natura was rediscovered in January 1417 by Poggio Bracciolini, who probably found the poem in the Benedictine library at Fulda. Lukrez. Additionally, although only published in 1996, Lucy Hutchinson's translation of De rerum natura was in all likelihood the first in English and was most likely completed some time in the late 1640s or 1650s. De Rerum Natura. Cuius, uti memoro, rei simulacrum et imago ante oculos semper nobis versatur et instat. De rerum natura Titel entspricht dem griechischen "P e r i j u s e w V "; - natürlich auch hier: Zerstörung des Mythos und aller unerklärbarer, - Mechanik) und nicht … , Because Lucretius was critical of religion and the claim of an immortal soul, his poem was disparaged by most early Church Fathers. 1620, gest.  Additionally, in his essay "Of Books", he lists Lucretius along with Virgil, Horace, and Catullus as his four top poets.  His influence is especially notable in the work of the Spanish-American philosopher George Santayana, who praised Lucretius—along with Dante and Goethe—in his book Three Philosophical Poets, although he openly admired the poet's system of physics more so than his spiritual musings (referring to the latter as "fumbling, timid and sad"). He argued that the deities (whose existence he did not deny) lived forevermore in the enjoyment of absolute peace—strangers to all the passions, desires, and fears, which affect humans—and totally indifferent to the world and its inhabitants, unmoved alike by their virtues and their crimes. In relation to this discrepancy in the frequency of Lucretius's reference to the apparent subject of his poem, Kannengiesse advances the theory that Lucretius wrote the first version of De rerum natura for the reader at large, and subsequently revised in order to write it for Memmius. The one major exception to this was Isidore of Seville, who at the start of the 7th century produced a work on astronomy and natural history dedicated to the Visigothic king Sisebut that was entitled De natura rerum. Perseus provides credit for all accepted This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. These phenomena are the result of regular, but purposeless motions and interactions of tiny atoms in empty space.  For instance, when considering the reason for stellar movements, Lucretius provides two possible explanations: that the sky itself rotates, or that the sky as a whole is stationary while constellations move. Lukrez Herkunft und soziale Stellung sind nicht gesichert; Vermutungen, die von seinem Cognomen Carus auf eine niedrige Herkunft schließen, sind ebenso wenig zu belegen wie die Annahme, Lukrez habe der Nobilität angehört. , Notable figures who owned copies include Ben Jonson whose copy is held at the Houghton Library, Harvard; and Thomas Jefferson, who owned at least five Latin editions and English, Italian and French translations.  The oldest—and, according to David Butterfield, most famous—of these is the Codex Oblongus, often called O. stammendes Lehrgedicht des römischen Dichters, Philosophen und Epikureers Titus Lucretius Carus, genannt Lukrez. , The Italian scholar Guido Billanovich demonstrated that Lucretius' poem was well known in its entirety by Lovato Lovati (1241–1309) and some other Paduan pre-humanists during the thirteenth century. However, Memmius' name is central to several critical verses in the poem, and this theory has therefore been largely discredited. Buch (deutsche Übersetzung v. K.L.v.Knebel) Titus Lucretius Carus. • Bailey, C. (1947). , The first printed edition of De rerum natura was produced in Brescia, Lombardy, in 1473. However, the purpose of the poem is subject to ongoing scholarly debate. , The oldest purported fragments of De rerum natura were published by K. Kleve in 1989 and consist of sixteen fragments. stammendes Lehrgedicht des römischen Dichters, Philosophen und Epikureers Titus Lucretius Carus, genannt Lukrez.  David Butterfield also writes that "clear echoes and/or responses" to De rerum natura can be detected in the works of the Roman elegiac poets Catullus, Propertius, and Tibullus, as well as the lyric poet Horace. Jahrhundert v. Chr.  His Essays contain almost a hundred quotes from De rerum natura. According to Lucretius's frequent statements in his poem, the main purpose of the work was to free Gaius Memmius's mind of the supernatural and the fear of death—and to induct him into a state of ataraxia by expounding the philosophical system of Epicurus, whom Lucretius glorifies as the hero of his epic poem. Zumindest deutet sein W… Lucretius wrote this epic poem to "Memmius", who may be Gaius Memmius, who in 58 BC was a praetor, a judicial official deciding controversies between citizens and the government. DE RERVM NATVRA LIBRI SEX. For the documentary television series, see, Lucretius was quoted by several early Christian writers, including, List of English translations of De rerum natura, "Hortus Apertus – La fortuna – Dante e Lucrezio", "Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini" (2013), "The 2012 Pulitzer Prize Winners: General Nonfiction", "2011 National Book Award Winner, Nonfiction", "An Unearthed Treasure That Changed Things", "The Answer Man: An Ancient Poem Was Rediscovered—and the World Swerved", "Book review: 'The Swerve: How the World Became Modern, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=De_rerum_natura&oldid=993308149, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 23:10. Commentary references to this page The first three books provide a fundamental account of being and nothingness, matter and space, the atoms and their movement, the infinity of the universe both as regards time and space, the regularity of reproduction (no prodigies, everything in its proper habitat), the nature of mind (animus, directing thought) and spirit (anima, sentience) as material bodily entities, and their mortality, since, according to Lucretius, they and their functions (consciousness, pain) end with the bodies that contain them and with which they are interwoven. In the work, Greenblatt argues that Poggio Bracciolini's discovery of De rerum natura reintroduced important ideas that sparked the modern age. " (Of note, Lucretius repeats these 25 lines, almost verbatim, in the introduction to the fourth book. Click anywhere in the This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. , The earliest recorded critique of Lucretius's work is in a letter written by the Roman statesman Cicero to his brother Quintus, in which the former claims that Lucretius's poetry is "full of inspired brilliance, but also of great artistry" (Lucreti poemata, ut scribis, ita sunt, multis luminibus ingeni, multae tamen artis).  The Early Christian apologist Lactantius, in particular, heavily cites and critiques Lucretius in his The Divine Institutes and its Epitome, as well as his De ira Dei. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. But if they were not in the habit of swerving, they would all fall straight down through the depths of the void, like drops of rain, and no collision would occur, nor would any blow be produced among the atoms. Current location in this text. Zur Ausstellung erscheint ein Katalog.  Scholars consider manuscripts O, Q, and S to all be descendants of the original archetype, which they dub Ω. Die Annäherung der Künstler erfolgte über ausgewählte Textstellen, die zu einer bildlichen Darstellung animierten. De rerum natura (Latin: [deːˈreːrʊ̃n.naːˈtuːraː]; On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience. Epicurus thus made it his mission to remove these fears, and thus to establish tranquility in the minds of his readers.  (Coincidentally, De rerum natura and the Astronomica were both rediscovered by Poggio Bracciolini in the early 15th century. Chr.)  She qualifies her use of this term, cautioning that it is not to be used to say that Lucretius was himself an atheist in the modern sense of the word, nor that atheism is a teleological necessity, but rather that many of his ideas were taken up by 19th, 20th, and 21st century atheists. ", Lucretius maintained that he could free humankind from fear of the deities by demonstrating that all things occur by natural causes without any intervention by the deities. ), Montaigne owned a Latin edition published in Paris, in 1563, by Denis Lambin which he heavily annotated. De Rerum Natura or because all that does come goes back, in some way repulsed before we can perceive what harm it does, [experience manifestly shows that this cannot be true.]  The German classicists Ivo Bruns and Samuel Brandt set forth an alternative theory that Lucretius did at first write the poem with Memmius in mind, but that his enthusiasm for his patron cooled over time. ", Despite his advocacy of empiricism and his many correct conjectures about atomism and the nature of the physical world, Lucretius concludes his first book stressing the absurdity of the (by then well-established) round earth theory, favor instead a flat earth cosmology. Mit einer Einführung und Erläuterungen von Ernst Günther Schmidt, München 1991 – Lukrez: De rerum natura. , In regards to prose writers, a number either quote from Lucretius's poem or express great admiration for De rerum natura, including: Vitruvius (in De Architectura), Marcus Velleius Paterculus (in the Historiae Romanae), Quintilian (in the Institutio Oratoria), Tacitus (in the Dialogus de oratoribus), Marcus Cornelius Fronto (in De eloquentia), Cornelius Nepos (in the Life Of Atticus), Apuleius (in De Deo Socratis), and Gaius Julius Hyginus (in the Fabulae). , Martin Ferguson Smith notes that Cicero's close friend, Titus Pomponius Atticus, was an Epicurean publisher, and it is possible his slaves made the very first copies of De rerum natura. Das Ziel seiner Theorie ist die Entmystifizierung von Naturphänomenen. Determinism appears to conflict with the concept of free will. Lucretius then dedicates time to exploring the axiom that nothing can be produced from nothing, and that nothing can be reduced to nothing (Nil fieri ex nihilo, in nihilum nil posse reverti). • Alioto, Anthony M. (1987). To prove that neither the mind nor spirit can survive independent of the body, Lucretius uses a simple analogy: when a vessel shatters, its contents spill everywhere; likewise, when the body dies, the mind and spirit dissipate. quae quoniam rerum naturam sola gubernas nec sine te quicquam dias in luminis oras exoritur neque fit laetum neque amabile quicquam, te sociam studeo scribendis versibus esse, quos ego de rerum natura pangere conor 25 Memmiadae nostro, quem tu, dea, tempore in …  However, while O is a direct descendant of the archetype, Q and S are believed to have both been derived from a manuscript (Ψ) that in turn had been derived from a damaged and modified version of the archetype (ΩI). options are on the right side and top of the page. atque animi quoniam docui natura quid esset et quibus e rebus cum corpore compta vigeret quove modo distracta rediret in ordia prima, nunc agere incipiam tibi, quod vehementer ad has res attinet esse ea quae rerum simulacra vocamus, quod speciem ac formam similem gerit eius imago, cuius cumque cluet de corpore fusa vagari; (3). Titus Lucretius Carus war ein römischer Dichter und Philosoph in der Tradition des Epikureismus. Lateinische Lehrbücher I-VI. Buch - deutsch : 1. Since that nothingness (which he likens to a deep, peaceful sleep) caused us no pain or discomfort, we should not fear the same nothingness that will follow our own demise:, According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Lucretius sees those who fear death as embracing the fallacious assumption that they will be present in some sense "to regret and bewail [their] own non-existence. If the latter is true, Lucretius, notes, this is because: "either swift currents of ether whirl round and round and roll their fires at large across the nocturnal regions of the sky"; "an external current of air from some other quarter may whirl them along in their course"; or "they may swim of their own accord, each responsive to the call of its own food, and feed their fiery bodies in the broad pastures of the sky". (3 Bde. The De rerum natura is, as its title confirms, a work ofphysics, written in the venerable tradition of Greek treatises Onnature. Hutchinson, Lucy (geb. These remnants were discovered among the Epicurean library in the Villa of the Papyri, Herculaneum. In seinem Werk „de rerum natura“ entwickelt Lukrez eine Theorie, welche im Wesentlichen darauf basiert, den wahrnehmbaren Dingen kleinste Atome zuzuschreiben (Z. , There is a certain irony to the poem, namely that while Lucretius extols the virtue of the Epicurean school of thought, Epicurus himself had advised his acolytes from penning poetry because he believed it to make that which was simple overly complicated. This copy has been dated to the early ninth century and was produced by a Carolingian scriptorium (likely a monastery connected to the court of Charlemagne). And as a simple ceasing-to-be, death can be neither good nor bad for this being, since a dead person—being completely devoid of sensation and thought—cannot miss being alive. An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make.  However, Manilius's poem, espouses a Stoic, deterministic understanding of the universe, and by its very nature attacks the very philosophical underpinnings of Lucretius's worldview.  In response, many scholars argue that the poet uses Venus poetically as a metonym. Kosmologie, Kulturgeschichte Historians of science, however, have been critical of the limitations of his Epicurean approach to science, especially as it pertained to astronomical topics, which he relegated to the class of "unclear" objects. An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. De rerum natura De rerum natura (deutsch Über die Natur der Dinge oder Vom Wesen des Weltalls) ist ein aus dem 1. contemplator enim, cum solis lumina cumque inserti fundunt radii per opaca domorum: (3): Cross-references in general dictionaries to this page The universe described in the poem operates according to these physical principles, guided by fortuna ("chance"), and not the divine intervention of the traditional Roman deities. To do this, Epicurus invoked the atomism of Democritus to demonstrate that the material universe was formed not by a Supreme Being, but by the mixing of elemental particles that had existed from all eternity governed by certain simple laws. line to jump to another position: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0550.phi001.perseus-lat1:1.1-1.49, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0550.phi001.perseus-lat1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0550.phi001, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0550.phi001.perseus-lat1.  By recalling the opening to poems by Homer, Ennius, and Hesiod (all of which begin with an invocation to the Muses), the proem to De rerum natura conforms to epic convention. Der Menschheit wurde damit sowohl ein strahlendes Stück Poesie als auch ein Zeugnis davon erhalten, zu welchen geistigen Höhenflügen griechische Philosophen und Wissenschaftler lange vor … Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. sion that the De Rerum Natura, even in iu most scientific discussions, is Itill poetry.  Regardless, due to the ideas espoused in the poem, much of Lucretius's work was seen by many as direct a challenge to theistic, Christian belief. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. " However, Kleve contends that four of the six books are represented in the fragments, which he argues is reason to assume that the entire poem was at one time kept in the library. , Thus, he began his discussion by claiming that he would, explain by what forces nature steers the courses of the Sun and the journeyings of the Moon, so that we shall not suppose that they run their yearly races between heaven and earth of their own free will [i.e., are gods themselves] or that they are rolled round in furtherance of some divine plan...., However, when he set out to put this plan into practice, he limited himself to showing how one, or several different, naturalistic accounts could explain certain natural phenomena. ", After Lactantius's time, Lucretius was almost exclusively referenced or alluded to in a negative manner by the Church Fathers. " His naturalistic explanations were meant to bolster the ethical and philosophical ideas of Epicureanism, not to reveal true explanations of the physical world.. In both this work, and as well as his more well-known Etymologiae (c. AD 600–625), Isidore liberally quotes from Lucretius a total of twelve times, drawing verses from all of Lucretius's books except his third. , While there exist a handful of references to Lucretius in Romance and Germanic sources dating between the ninth and fifteenth centuries (references that, according to Ada Palmer, "indicate a tenacious, if spotty knowledge of the poet and some knowledge of [his] poem"), no manuscripts of De rerum natura currently survive from this span of time. ISBN 0133923908. Berlin 1957, S. 168.: 5.  To further alleviate the fear of non-existence, Lucretius makes use of the symmetry argument: he argues that the eternal oblivion awaiting all humans after death is exactly the same as the infinite nothingness that preceded our birth. Im Bereich der lateinischen Sprache ist Lukrez dagegen der erste, der im epischen Versmaß des Hexameters einen „Sach- zusammenhang“ (Reclam, S. 617) beschreibt. The poem consists of six untitled books, in dactylic hexameter. Über das Leben des Lukrez ist so gut wie nichts bekannt. , In 2011, the historian and literary scholar Stephen Greenblatt wrote a popular history book about the poem, entitled The Swerve: How the World Became Modern. his assertion that the world was created from chaos, and his denials of Providence, divine participation, miracles, the efficacy of prayer, and an afterlife) as "proto-atheistic".  Memmius was also a tribune in 66, praetor in 58, governor of Bithynia in 57, and was a candidate for the consulship in 54 but was disqualified for bribery, and Stearns suggests that the warm relationship between patron and client may have cooled (sed tua me virtus tamen et sperata voluptas / suavis amicitiae quemvis efferre laborem, "But still your merit, and as I hope, the joy / Of our sweet friendship, urge me to any toil").